The logistics sector is using new approaches, mandates, and technologies to support global supply chain security.
United Kingdom establishes national training center for fracking; China and Jamaica team up on logistics training initiatives; UK port constraints push freight flows north; Middle East air cargo carriers show robust growth
UPS makes major improvements to save Christmas; PANYNJ invests $5.5 billion to streamline port operations
As You Sow asks P&G and General Mills to recycle post-consumer waste; PepsiCo and Coca-Cola make bottles out of plants; Air cargo industry raises concerns about the Transportation Security Administration’s 100-percent screening mandate; Truckers report increasing volumes and rates; TMS market shows signs of rebound; CN invests in new intermodal equipment, new customers; Amazon vacates S.C. DC over sales tax
U.S. Department of Transportation pursues ban on cell phone use while driving; Proposed air cargo screening legislation enhances security measures; U.S. retailers place increased emphasis on supply chain management
Geography, transportation infrastructure, and a strong distribution sector make Memphis a natural logistics hub.
The Transportation Security Administration's air cargo screening requirements create challenges for airports and shippers, writes Robert F. Caton of AMB Logistics.
The preparations made by Florida seaports allowed them to perform efficiently and safely before, during, and after Hurricane Irma.
Keeping your cargo safe from theft is a bigger challenge than you might think. Follow these steps to reduce the risks that make your company a target.
Hackers can shut down entire organizations by infiltrating systems, locking down digital assets, and making all files and folders inaccessible. No fulfillment. No new client acquisition. No checking inventory. Here's how to make sure that doesn’t happen.
Port Everglades' three low-profile Super Post Panamax container-handling gantry cranes will meet demands from current customers and new services anticipated from the port's expansion program.
Larger vessels and additional container services calling Georgia's ports coupled with a positive economic forecast ushered in an all-time record month for container volume.
Broward County's Port Everglades received unanimous approval from the Broward County Board of County Commissioners to begin a $437.5 million expansion project to add new berths for larger cargo ships and install crane rail infrastructure for new Super Post-Panamax cranes.
The public marine terminals of the Helen Delich Bentley Port of Baltimore got off to a fast start in 2017 by posting a record first quarter with 2.5 tons of general cargo.
Spring cargo numbers from the St. Lawrence Seaway and U.S. ports are signaling a better year for Great Lakes-Seaway shipping. According to the latest figures from the St. Lawrence Seaway, total cargo shipments via the Seaway from the start of the shipping season (March 20 through April 30) reached 3.7 million metric tons, up 8% from the same period a year ago.
South Carolina Ports Authority had its strongest April container volumes on record, with 189,315 twenty foot-equivalent units (TEUs) handled last month. In addition to being the strongest April in SCPA history, last month’s volumes were the second-highest ever handled by the Port.
Recent randomware attacks reveal vulnerabilities in manufacturing, logistics and supply chain security.
Canada and European Union approve CETA; global trade predictions for 2020; air cargo ends 2016 on up note; DHL survey reveals global business priorities for 2017
As organizations continue to outsource, form partnerships and share data with third parties, a strong vendor risk management program that stays ahead or risks in the information supply chain has to be a top priority.
From location to infrastructure and from workforce to technology, Georgia sets the pace in the logistics race.
Future of globalization uncertain in current political landscape, Carlos Slim says Trump presidency could be good for Mexico, IATA promotes advancement of air cargo standards, India seeks to expand air cargo infrastructure, 10 supply chain predictions for the future of manufacturing.
Inland ports provide shippers with new global trade strategies and relief from capacity issues facing North America’s deepwater container ports.
New Year supply chain health check; DHL uses penguins to train couriers; Ocean Alliance receives FMC approval; Veterans make better truck drivers than non-veterans; Cyberattacks focusing on weak supply chain links
As larger vessels make their way through the expanded section of the Panama Canal, experts weigh the influence of the canal’s new capacity on global shipping.
Rickenbacker International Airport offers fast, efficient operations.
These developments are helping the transportation industry to continually evolve.
The U.S. Bureau of Industry and Security revised almost every section of the U.S. Export Administration Regulations (EAR) on Sept. 20, 2016. Here’s what shippers need to know.
Offering top-flight cargo facilities and infrastructure, among other features, the following airports are ranked as the nation’s top 10 cargo airports.
Airfreight forwarders face headwinds — from shippers shifting to ocean freight and fewer routes for air cargo shipments — and must learn to leverage opportunities.
The expansion of the Panama Canal promises significant changes in trade patterns and increased global trade. Here are three ways companies can leverage this opportunity.
Here's why the Panama Canal expansion is set to spur a realignment in which eastern ports take on a new and larger role in the continental supply chain.
Having all supply chain players connected to an intelligent cargo system maximizes the use of port infrastructure and keeps everyone informed on the “where is my cargo?” question. Accessing and sharing information on cargo through new technologies will not only smooth flows but it will also secure them.
South Korean ocean liner Hanjin Shipping files for bankruptcy protection in a dozen countries; Few respondents to a GT Nexus survey say they have a chief supply chain officer on hand who would be equipped to deal with supply chain disruptions; Maersk splits its transportation and oil businesses
Effectively mitigate demurrage and detention fees by taking an integrated approach to logistics, contract management, and supply chain visibility using a global trade management system.
Shippers will be feeling the ripple effects of Hanjin Shipping’s bankruptcy for weeks or months to come. Here's how looking at a past disruption can inform strategies for this current backlog.
The September 2016 Intermodal EXPO provides the setting for a thoughtful discussion on the ocean shipping sector: its prospects and how it impacts the intermodal industry.
When shippers pair an import transport move with an export transport move inland, without returning empty to the port, they get a matchback or street-turn. Optimizing these street-turns can improve supply chains.
U.S.-Canada cross-border trade continues to be a mutually beneficial partnership between nations with a long history of friendship.
Keeping cargo secure requires visibility and the automation technology to enable this view into your shipments. Additionally, immediate access to rapidly changing requirements for import and export activities plays a key role in light of new security concerns.
Using an import express less-than-container service, particularly from China, offers cost savings and faster transit times over traditional consolidated LCL services.
A handy reading guide summarizing supply chain books and their key takeaways.
The Panama Canal expansion, completed on June 26, 2016, will have an ever-widening impact on cargo flow across North America. Here's how the culmination of this decade-long expansion project will rewrite the rules of shipping.
These ports have utilized various initiatives to ensure the ultimate impact of sustainability outweighs its costs.
U.S. chemical manufacturers and distributors must comply with two sets of regulations affecting chemical shipments. Here's how to stay compliant, efficient, and safe.
As the demand for supply chain efficiency and speed rises, companies are investing in intermodal rail infrastructure and repairs throughout the United States.
New technology enables new advances in supply chain security. What will security look like in 2025?
Launching a cost cutting, productivity-enhancing, or sustainability initiative creates efficiencies with environmental benefits and cost reductions.
Chinese investors look to U.S. for economic growth; air cargo industry struggles
By offering air, barge, ocean carrier, rail, and trucking services, logistics providers are minimizing the risks involved with transporting goods to, from, and within Alaska.
Vulnerable to cargo theft? This monitoring solution provides layers of assurance for shippers and transporters.
Profile of Jamie Overley, CEO of East Coast Warehouse and Distribution
As major airlines implement the eAWB single-process approach in March 2016, industry-wide involvement in the program is encouraged for all participants as paperless air cargo supply chain operations lower costs, increase data accuracy, and improve the customer experience.
So how prepared is your business to withstand a crisis? Effective risk analysis and crisis preparation is an essential strategy.
This story follows the progress of an intermodal container during its three-day, round the clock trip from the Port of Los Angeles/Long Beach to a distribution center in Dallas.
Due to the Panama Canal expansion, the country is quickly being crowned the business capital of Latin America.
To help combat counterfeiting, the premium beverage industry is taking advantage of serial numbers on product packages to uniquely identify each product for increased connectivity throughout packaging operations and the supply chain.
As cyber crime and data breaches continue to climb, supply chain information is increasingly at risk. Here are ways to assess your vulnerability and keep supply chain data safe from hackers.
It's important to stay up to date on supply chain and logistics developments. Here's a list of books on wide ranging topics.
Keep these trends in mind when selecting an air logistics supplier to find the best solution to suits your needs
Inbound Logistics dredges up data on the leading U.S. container hubs.
The pursuit of perfection may seem an impossible goal. But, with the right combination of key elements, four regions in the United States have achieved logistics greatness.
Railroads, ocean carriers, and ports are investing in new equipment and technology innovation to move freight from trucks to rails and attract intermodal shippers.
Supply chain continuity planning is critical for global businesses. Armed with an end-to-end digital model of their supply chains, shippers can react rapidly and intelligently when unplanned events occur.
Use these seven tips to find a partner in China that is right for your company.
An on-board video solution helps fleet managers review driver performance and improve fleet safety.
Latin American perishable exports have grown dramatically in recent years, but there are still some logistical shortcomings preventing maximum cold chain efficiency.
The shortage of qualified drivers threatens the continued growth of the intermodal industry.
Freight damage, loss, and theft will always occur. Planning for those inevitabilities is key to prevention and faster claims settlement.
Automatic Identification System (AIS) can provide analytics that enable companies to more accurately predict ship arrival times.
Port of Hamburg unveils new traffic light system; CEVA Logistics TireCity in Italy demonstrates interest in sector-specific supply chain collaboration; China debuts longest freight rail route in the world; TPP agreement raises concerns about traceability in the seafood supply chain; Africa capital investment heats up; New G6 Alliance rotation features Polish port; Indian 3PL uses containers as mobile logistics classrooms; Intel eyes Asia for IoT ecosystem.
Minimizing employee downtime with ergonomic initiatives and equipment can have a big impact on the bottom line.
These four tips can help you make sure your specialized shipment arrives safely and on time.
The Panama Canal expansion will provide many businesses with opportunities for growth on a global scale.
Successful companies are concerned about supply chain security. Here’s how to prevent supply chain threats from negatively impacting your company’s bottom line and reputation.
Having a Master Plan in place at your port makes operations more efficient, and makes the port more attractive to prospective partners.
Short-term Highway Trust Fund extension renews call for national transportation strategy; Medical cost inflation and cyber risk are the most prying business concerns; Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach create shared working groups to explore operational efficiencies; GS1 Simple Product Listing creates new standard for e-commerce marketplace
Martin Associates report points to the importance of continuing U.S. port investment; Henry Ford College introduces associates degree in supply chain management; Freight Can't Wait program encourages Congress to earmark funding exclusively for freight infrastructure projects; Manufacturers are finding better ways to engineer and prototype products using 3D printing technology; McDonald's pledges to lessen impact on global deforestation throughout its entire supply chain.
Challenging weather and a remote location make delivering freight to and from Alaska a complex operation. To simplify operations, many shippers turn to transportation companies and logistics service providers that have the expertise to make sure freight flows smoothly despite the complexities.
United States and Canada are investing $7 billion in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence system; Changing political relations between the United States and Cuba could signal new trade opportunities; UK faces a truck driver shortage among younger people; Panama approves new port development
Facing a number of challenges and constraints, the global port industry is addressing concerns and capitalizing on new opportunities.
As transportation prices rise, shippers are engaging in smart planning to reduce logistics costs.
As the Panama Canal expansion nears completion, several trends and trade dynamics will determine the impact on U.S. shippers and consignees.
North Korea,South Korea,and Russia team up to test new trade partnership,GS1 global registry sets new standard with 15 million products,Middle East airports face growing congestion problem,Puerto Rico makes Panama Canal transshipment play with Port of the Americas project,Britain introduces supply chain slavery bill.
As intermodal grows, so do its challenges. Increasing cargo volumes create bottlenecks and congestion; while the capacity shortage has everyone scrambling. How are shippers and service providers coping? This article helps solve the dilemma.
Creative use of intermodal and multimodal options enables cost-effective transportation, boosts capacity, and reduces highway congestion delays.
Determining the best location for a new or expanding business in an increasingly competitive and global marketplace is challenging. These locations offer a number of advantages when it comes to meeting today’s logistics and supply chain needs.
Memphis supports global supply chains through highway, rail, airport, and inland port assets, and a qualified workforce.
OSHA issues updates to its Hazard Communication Standard; HP’s Dave Thomas addresses the importance of data quality; Ohio Trucking Association debuts military exhibition class at truck driving competition; Companies fail to use procurement in a strategic way; Shippers planning ahead for labor disruptions.
DB Schenker tests silent brake blocks; India changes policy for e-commerce foreign investment; Canada opens Customs Self Assessment preferences to U.S. shippers; Global steamship lines raise rates; European ports struggle with congestion and larger ships
Port of Los Angeles targets $3 billion for infrastructure investment; Montreal-based Fednav uses drones to scout shipping conditions; U.S. manufacturing renaissance faces a skilled labor shortage; Apple tops Gartner’s Top 25 Supply Chain list for the seventh consecutive year.
U.S. industry looks to Europe for materials handling and omnichannel innovation; Amsterdam’s Schiphol Airport pilots new remote scanning program; Ocean carriers struggle with schedule reliability; WTO projects an uptick in global trade for 2014; Falling freight rates help Brazilian sugar exporters seize market share.
Shipment monitoring tools allow manufacturers and shippers to locate cargo, manage inventory and prevent theft.
Shippers and logistics providers take extra precautions to protect high-value products from cargo theft.
Alaska’s extreme weather and geography create logistics challenges for shippers moving cargo to, from, and in the state.
New Jersey’s salty tale misplaces blame on the Jones Act; UPS unveils new hazmat shipping protocol; Automakers collaborate to map the auto supply chain
Companies make contingency plans to prepare for possible supply chain disruptions caused by port labor negotiations.
Georgia offers manufacturers and distributors superior access to logistics providers and transportation infrastructure.
Hunter Harrison documents the culture change that has contributed to Canadian Pacific’s rail renaissance; Global companies more concerned about climate risk than emissions reductions; Deadline for new ISO17712:2013 high-security seal standards is fast approaching; Lack of collaboration between supply chain and finance hurts the bottom line
China and Taiwan depend on one another; Emirates targets multimodal transportation infrastructure investment; Chile port strike ends, concerns remain; Free online returns stoke Canadian consumption but place onus on U.S. retailers; Europe looks to United States for re-shoring inspiration; Mondelez debuts new GS1 standard
Rapid changes in the chassis market mean shippers must ensure they are creating value from the chassis they use.
Ensuring supply chain security requires that shippers and logistics providers stay one step ahead of thieves.
Air cargo shipments of perishable goods such as produce, flowers, and seafood require careful handling.
Shippers protect against supply chain disruptions with physical, analytical, and financial risk mitigation strategies.
Foreign Trade Zones can help global shippers cut operational costs and speed customs clearance for imports and exports.
The 2013 Rail Trends conference addressed issues of rail safety and regulation.
Knowing your global trading partners can help maintain a smooth flow of goods, while ensuring safety and security.
Actionable tips help you revitalize your warehousing, 3PL, trucking, and global logistics operations.
Ocean shipping lines have made significant progress to optimize operations, leading to reduced costs and environmental impact.
Expedited shipping modes are a crucial part of shippers’ planned transportation strategies.
Aviation climate emissions agreement signals major progress; Latin American economic growth expected to accelerate despite hinterland connectivity issues; IMO’s container weight verification amendment irks some shipper advocates; Rolls-Royce developing hybrid wind-powered ship; Spain and Portugal seek rail freight harmonies
Railroads are investing in new safety processes, technology and policies to ensure cargo security and prevent accidents.
Inbound Logistics recently joined Flanders Investment & Trade on a tour of Belgium’s ports and distribution facilities.
GPS tracking devices give shippers shipment visibility, even when cargo is in the air.
When choosing an airfreight forwarder, consider transport and tech capabilities, service records, and professionalism.
Investing in port infrastructure allows long-term job creation so the U.S. can lead in international trade and commerce.
C-TPAT certification lets businesses support national security and improve their own supply chain operations.
Sensor-based logistics solutions monitor factors like temperature and humidity to protect perishable shipments.
Transloading shipments allows shippers to reduce touches and costs, and create greater flexibility to respond to changing demand in global shipments.
To ensure cargo security in the global supply chain, understanding the challenges, studying best practices, and putting a comprehensive plan in place are critical components.
The Panama Canal expansion, to be completed in 2015, will impact global commerce and affect trade patterns to the U.S. East Coast. Ports such as PortMiami are preparing themselves to accept the new class of mega cargo ships, says Bill Johnson of PortMiami.
By implementing collaborative and flexible logistics practices and remaining agile, managing air freight today can be a win-win process for both shipper and forwarder, writes Horst von Kanel of Damco USA.
Expedited services transport cargo by air, sea, or ground to meet shippers’ demands for consistent, on-time delivery with short lead times.
Supply chain partners are taking cues from U.S. Customs and Border Protection and making concerted efforts to share and apply security best practices throughout their organizations and supply chain operations, says Howard Finkel of COSCO Container Lines Americas.
Ports must take a proactive role in managing the supply chain so it runs as efficiently as possible, writes Kevin Doherty of Montreal Gateway Terminals Partnership.
The Transported Asset Protection Association (TAPA) unites global manufacturers, carriers, insurers, and service providers to reduce the risks of criminal activity against high-value cargo in the transportation supply chain, writes Lisa Greenleaf of TUV Rheinland of North America.
The growth of global trade and sourcing creates more security vulnerabilities within the supply chain. Aggressive thieves with sophisticated techniques have spurred innovation in shipment processes, technology, and regulatory measures.
Looking out to 2015, anticipation is swirling about the Panama Canal's expansion and impact on U.S. trade. Among southeastern ports and shippers, that wave of anticipation has already made landfall.
The airfreight industry is depending on the new efficiencies promised by new freighters, e-commerce, and updated air traffic control systems to offset economic uncertainties and increasing regulatory requirements.
Ralph Lauren’s transport operations team lacked the ability to dynamically route international air freight according to real-time best service and cost options, and it showed in inflated shipping costs. When a market search found no suitable transportation management system (TMS) for international air freight, the company decided to create its own, with help from solutions provider Acuitive Solutions.
In an exclusive interview with Inbound Logistics, Dennis Omanoff, senior vice president, chief supply chain officer, chief procurement officer, corporate facilities and real estate for McAfee Inc., shares his view of supply chain management, security, and the U.S. business climate.
Demand for industrial real estate near U.S. seaports is outpacing demand for industrial sites in general. Whether it actively buys and develops land or simply improves its own facilities to draw more interest, port authorities are crucial partners in regional economic development initiatives.
Air cargo security requires aggressive international mandate and top-down focus on identity verification and data analysis, writes Steve Vinsik of Unisys Corporation.
Shippers can ensure ocean cargo security by taking steps such as using C-TPAT checklists, performing random container inspections, applying security seals, shipping through secured ports, conducting security training, and following U.S. Customs and Border Protection guidelines.
U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals rules against Port of LA; Florida Inland Port signs MOU with Jacksonville Port Authority; Parcel shippers primed for change; Proposed FTZ rules changes threaten U.S. manufacturing.
Carriers, port authorities, and other service providers are working to keep intermodal going strong. Here’s a look at some of the newest developments in intermodal transportation around North America.
Motor freight carriers employ a variety of strategies to keep cargo secure in transit, writes Editor Felecia Stratton.
Global shippers must be well-prepared to ensure the safety of international cargo shipments, writes Bill Anderson of Ryder System Inc.
If your business plans include shipping to areas where civil unrest or natural disasters have occurred, be flexible and make strong connections, advises Larry Wenrich, Pilot Freight Services.
Since the events of September 11, the public and private sectors have committed themselves to developing new supply chain security technologies.
Most ports today compete globally with one another and reflect tremendous productivity gains in ocean transport achieved in recent decades. Simon Kaye of Jaguar Freight offers tips on choosing a port with electronic and data processing sophistication.
Scott Aubuchon of UPS offers tips to help shippers make the most of their air cargo shipments.
Equipping shipments with container security devices (CSDs) can help expedite inspections, decrease insurance premiums, and minimize supply chain disruptions. Jim Giermanski of Powers Global Holdings outlines the benefits of CSDs.
Choose a global air transportation services provider that both you and your customers can trust to deliver time-sensitive inventory on schedule.
Troy Ryley and Jose Minarro, managing directors for Transplace Mexico, offer tips for shipping freight cross-border and within Mexico.
The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration's Roadability Rule has shifted responsibility for obtaining and maintaining chassis to shippers and drayage companies.
Industry experts explain how to avoid threats to warehoused goods, conduct a global security assessment, and benefit from renewed government and private sector attention to supply chain security initiatives.
Dubai makes progress on its first aerotropolis, Starbucks partners with China to set up its first coffee bean farm, Canadian National accelerates auto imports, United Kingdom and France work to counter terrorism, Marks & Spencer accelerates supply chain improvement plan
When expediting shipments, visibility, communication, and customer service get into gear.
Moving cargo by air in Alaska requires expertise in transportation and logistics management.
David Bennett of Schneider Logistics addresses how shippers, ocean carriers, and trucking companies are struggling with responsibility for providing chassis for cargo container units at ports; Boeing appoints new VP to handle 787 Dreamliner delays; companies restructure outsourced technology contracts.
Heineken implements inland barge distribution in Europe; CMA CGM, MSC, and Maersk Line partner to fight piracy; PepsiCo UK and Ireland help farm suppliers cut carbon emissions and water usage; New Dubai Logistics Corridor facilitates UAE trade; Japanese economy shows signs of rebound; Taiwan launches project to improve logistics performance.
Russia developing a super-heavy cargo plane; Suppliers cannot meet Northern Europe's demand for wind power equipment; United Arab Emirates top re-exporter of rice; Outsourcing grows in Brazil; FedEx Express expands expedited offerings in China; Luxembourg-based 3PL introduces new multimodal hanging garment container to Australian apparel industry.
U.S. transportation spending lags, according to Transportation Performance Indexes; International air cargo traffic increases; Ocean volumes rise; Large corporations band together to help smaller suppliers sell goods and services to global companies.
Increased regulation in the form of CSA 2010 affects not only truckers, but also freight brokers providing insurance, according to Mike Williams, chief operating officer, Sunteck Transport Group.
Mexico Taxes U.S. Imports, Audi's carbon friendly cars and carbon friendly transportation, Australia labors over transportation expansion, UPS opens health care logistics hubs in Singapore and China, U.S. football imports from China
News briefs: U.S. Ports Dig Panama Gold, Reducing the Carton Footprint, SaaS to the Rescue, BNSF Brings Shortlines On Line, Truckers Tackle Credit Crunch
Gulf ports maintain container volumes despite Deepwater Horizon oil spill; Supply chain leaders climb the corporate ladder; Toyota Material Handling engineers work with MIT scientists and the U.S. Army to develop a remote-operated fork lift
A steady stream of goods passing north and south across the U.S.-Canada border stitches the two nations tightly together, complicated by factors such as customs regulations, security protocols, data exchange, and infrastructure projects.
21st annual State of Logistics Report: Beating the Recession; Making dollars and Sense out of Jabulanis and Vuvuzelas; Mergers and Acquisitions Show signs of Recovery
Global supply chain visibility and detail can only be achieved by modern electronic data transmissions that are already available and can reduce the costs of international cargo movement.
A professional freight forwarder that represents the interests of all supply chain participants can serve as the missing link in supply chain communication.
Inbound Logistics Senior Writer Joseph O'Reilly visits New Jersey's Port Elizabeth, one of the East Coast's busiest intermodal ports.
Inbound Logistics Senior Writer Joseph O'Reilly tours North Carolina's Piedmont Triad, home to a new FedEx hub and growing Aerotropolis.
The logistics sector’s reliance on relationships, email, and spreadsheet attachments makes it particularly vulnerable to cyberattacks. And the costs are staggering. Find out what shippers can do to make communications more secure.
MAERSK SHANGHAI, a 10,081 TEU container ship, the largest to ever call a Florida deep-water port was at PortMiami.
Supply chains are heavily dependent on information technology (IT) systems, but are difficult to secure because they often involve multiple networks working together.
IBM builds proof-of-concept blockchain supply chain network in Singapore; U.S. fashion industry association releases fourth fashion industry benchmarking study; E-commerce retailers target Germany
The big ships are here. At 1,200 feet long and 158 feet wide, the containership COSCO Development is the biggest containership to call The Port of Virginia and the U.S. East Coast.
The strengthening of air freight demand is consistent with an uptick in world trade and a six-year high in new export orders.
Florida's state-of-the-art seaports and airports, and strong highway and rail networks, have helped establish a strong and growing logistics sector.
Terminal operations today leverage highly integrated systems—from vehicle/fleet management, remote crane management, terminal operating systems, gate operation, position detection, and many others. So, how do we make this integration work better? The short answer—simplify and standardize.
By offering air, barge, ocean carrier, rail, and trucking services, logistics providers are minimizing the risks involved with transporting goods to, from, and within Alaska.