Memphis supports global supply chains through highway, rail, airport, and inland port assets, and a qualified workforce.
By providing visibility to items in transit, working to optimize transportation networks, and streamlining processes, transportation management systems (TMS) check off all the boxes.
George Kontoravdis, president at Fortigo, discusses how the transportation management solutions provider adjusted its feature set in response to changing customer needs resulting from COVID-19.
TA Services' transportation management solutions helped MRC Global, a distributor of pipe, infrastructure products, and valves and fittings, improve visibility and enhance service levels.
Inbound Logistics offers this annual guide of some top TMS providers and solutions that can put you on the right road toward improved transportation management and performance, regardless of the business conditions. Take a look at our 2020 TMS Buyer's Guide.
Need to move goods quickly? These airfreight partners offer speed and reliability with end-to-end solutions that ensure supply chain efficiency.
Trade tensions between the United States and China have many repercussions, according to the DHL Global Trade Barometer, an early indicator of global trade developments calculated using artificial intelligence and big data analytics.
As part of its plan to gradually expand cargo operations, JetBlue will partner with Miami-based consultancy Aeronex Cargo.
Air shipping has been somewhat predictable thanks to reoccurring annual events, but recently some events have disrupted the typical peaks and valleys we’ve come to expect.
Today’s Tier 1 TMSs can help you get work done faster, cut the need for calls and emails, reduce the number of screens and clicks, and increase your profitability.
The variety of transportation management systems available can make it difficult for shippers to target the solution that is the best fit for their organization. Experts say companies should strive to identify the features that will support their unique operation rather than falling into the trap of chasing options that will not provide a useful impact. The process for selecting a TMS should be marked by disciplined decision-making and a focus on the business case.
A few tips for keeping your air cargo safe during large freight shipments.
These best practices will help streamline your airfreight process.
These airfreight partners can help you fashion transportation operations that make your company a model of efficiency.
Many traditional airfreight forwarders are remaining relevant by enhancing their online capabilities and expanding the range of supply chain services they offer.
Transplace’s technology and expertise helps Brenntag streamline operations and realize greater visibility.
With BluJay’s Transportation Management solution, Ace Hardware has automated tasks and gained visibility of orders, shipment status, and costs.
To better serve customers, MD Logistics implemented a game-changing TMS and integrated it into its current WMS. The new solution allowed MD Logistics to find customers the most strategic carrier based on a variety of factors, including price, transit times, and retail compliance.
Through the key tenets of speed and service, Rickenbacker International Airport provides shippers with top-flight service. In addition, Rickenbacker employees act as neutral agents to bring together stakeholders and help strengthen the air cargo supply chain.
To get the most out of a TMS, professionals must identify and match operational requirements with the solution’s features. Joe Couto, chief operating officer at HighJump, outlines 10 tips for picking a TMS.
The days of EDI connectivity is quickly becoming outdated and replaced with real-time data feeds that benefit both shipper and their shipping partners.
How to Decide if You Should Outsource Your TMS
Kuebix TMS greatly improved Holman Parts Distribution’s operations.
Transportation management systems (TMS) streamline the information exchange between shippers and carriers. Cloud technology makes them affordable for many small- and mid-sized firms.
The future of TMS systems is not only to monitor service in real-time, but to properly audit the carrier’s invoice through settlement.
Here is what you need to know about pushback from IT when proposing a TMS implementation.
Ben E. Keith maximized freight management with help from ArrowStream’s Crossbow technology.
Your next transportation management system will soon serve as your company’s control tower with widespread visibility across all departments in your organization.
Rust-Oleum selected Celtic International, Transplace’s intermodal business unit, to provide intermodal and over-the-road transportation services for domestic shipments between its own facilities as well to its retailer customers.
Canada and European Union approve CETA; global trade predictions for 2020; air cargo ends 2016 on up note; DHL survey reveals global business priorities for 2017
Leading logistics providers are driving change – rather than responding to it – by leveraging modern TMS solutions.
Get the most out of a transportation management system by ensuring it provides the following functions.
Digitization is no longer an option. It is a competitive necessity.
With no standard terminology in an already-complex industry, it’s not surprising that so many TMS buyers have trouble figuring out the differences between solutions and which one best fits their needs. Here's how to cut through the confusion.
Data integration across systems can help optimize the supply chain and enable organizations to provide their customers with the best possible service from order to delivery.
Future of globalization uncertain in current political landscape, Carlos Slim says Trump presidency could be good for Mexico, IATA promotes advancement of air cargo standards, India seeks to expand air cargo infrastructure, 10 supply chain predictions for the future of manufacturing.
Another year is upon us and with it comes a new opportunity to do things differently; to do things better. After all, if you are not evolving, you are dying.
Rickenbacker International Airport offers fast, efficient operations.
These developments are helping the transportation industry to continually evolve.
Offering top-flight cargo facilities and infrastructure, among other features, the following airports are ranked as the nation’s top 10 cargo airports.
More companies are relying on expedited shipping a regular part of their inbound transportation planning. However, intelligent systems are helping reduce the need for the Hail Mary emergency moves.
Airfreight forwarders face headwinds — from shippers shifting to ocean freight and fewer routes for air cargo shipments — and must learn to leverage opportunities.
As a first-time TMS buyer, educate yourself on what a modern TMS can do – and come to the table with high expectations.
When considering, procuring, and implementing new logistics/supply chain technology, here are three steps to take to ensure a smooth rollout.
An acceleration of mergers and acquisitions is causing dramatic changes to the supply chain. Are you prepared to manage through this changing environment while managing cost?
When evaluating your needs for a transportation management system it’s important to look beyond technology and consider who will manage planning and execution. Use this advice to determine if a managed service provider will deliver greater value than developing an in-house team.
A handy reading guide summarizing supply chain books and their key takeaways.
Kuebix TMS and Managed Services take Weis Markets’ supply chain to the next level of excellence.
Your TMS is the perfect place to start making sense of IoT–giving you the ability to make smarter decisions faster.
This article looks at what’s new and interesting in transportation management systems (TMS).
By tapping into outsourced logistics support, shippers arm themselves with the technology, talent, and experience at a lower price than employed resources, which allow companies to invest and focus on their core competencies.
Savings from a TMS deployment can be significant. Here are the benefits of an incremental approach to acquisition.
The best solutions provide clear, regularly reported metrics not just to the shipper, but also to the carriers themselves.
Sapa Extrusions Americas achieves tremendous business benefits by implementing Cloud Logistics’ transportation management system (TMS).
Launching a cost cutting, productivity-enhancing, or sustainability initiative creates efficiencies with environmental benefits and cost reductions.
Chinese investors look to U.S. for economic growth; air cargo industry struggles
By offering air, barge, ocean carrier, rail, and trucking services, logistics providers are minimizing the risks involved with transporting goods to, from, and within Alaska.
A customized and strategic platform provides a company with a competitive edge over their competition.
As major airlines implement the eAWB single-process approach in March 2016, industry-wide involvement in the program is encouraged for all participants as paperless air cargo supply chain operations lower costs, increase data accuracy, and improve the customer experience.
When choosing a transportation management system, it’s important to ensure it will meet all of your requirements.
A real time tracking platform helps you revolutionize your logistics operations by improving service while reducing costs.
The expense of inbound vendor traffic and its impact on landed cost is overlooked. Use this advice to better managing inbound vendor freight.
Amazon’s Dash Replenishment Service gives industrial buyers a preview of how IoT may impact procurement; Private label sourcing faces new headwinds; Cloud Logistics debuts the latest twist in TMS deployments; CMA CGM launches first smart connected container ship; Automotive parts buyers are leveraging omni-channel options
Applying Berra-isms to logistics management yields valuable insights. Remembering the beloved Yankees legend Yogi Berra with fondness and celebrating his memorable words of wisdom.
Intelligent transportation technology provides new sources of competitive advantage through complete supply chain visibility.
Use these seven tips to find a partner in China that is right for your company.
3PLs tout IoT as top disruptive innovation in the supply chain; Hyundai and Accenture team up to design smarter ship; TMS use has tripled over the past decade; new sustainability web platform helps shippers assess key trends and best practices.
Understanding less-than-truckload shipping challenges is the key to overcoming them.
An Enterprise Logistics partnership helps improve companies by delivering customized applications to improve market advantage.
Using the data the TMS is already providing can help shippers improve their transport operations.
Cost reductions are uncovered from raw materials to end delivery, but companies must focus on its customers to keep them satisfied.
To help save money, shippers should build a strong relationship with their LTL carrier.
The key to any successful relationship is communication. Your logistics network is no different.
Supply chain ‘modeling’ replicates real-world events; Retailers and manufacturers make the jump to RFID; U.S. trucking industry sees better utilization and financial results; Data analytics is a big growth market.
This story looks at the role technology plays in the value that various third-party logistics (3PL) providers offer to their shipper customers.
Inbound Logistics’ annual Logistics Technology Perspectives offers market research to help IT buyers and users make better sense of what’s going on in the industry. And, the Top 100 Logistics Technology Providers list celebrates best-in-class innovators that are helping shippers revolutionize their supply chains.
Challenging weather and a remote location make delivering freight to and from Alaska a complex operation. To simplify operations, many shippers turn to transportation companies and logistics service providers that have the expertise to make sure freight flows smoothly despite the complexities.
Tired of relying on e-mail blasts to place freight, L.B. Foster ups its game with a third-party solution that has transformed the enterprise.
As transportation prices rise, shippers are engaging in smart planning to reduce logistics costs.
United Kingdom establishes national training center for fracking; China and Jamaica team up on logistics training initiatives; UK port constraints push freight flows north; Middle East air cargo carriers show robust growth
Five key questions to ask a software vendor to make sure they are the right fit for your operation.
UPS makes major improvements to save Christmas; PANYNJ invests $5.5 billion to streamline port operations
Shippers, carriers, 3PLs and brokers who are not fully utilizing their transportation management systems to secure capacity and manage global trade may be leaving money on the table.
Software-as-a-Service transportation management systems offer many advantages over enterprise software.
SaaS TMS solutions allow shippers, carriers, suppliers, and consignees to conduct business on a single platform.
TAJ Flooring used a transportation management system to improve shipment and freight spend visibility.
With an integrated transportation management software (TMS) platform, service providers can gain complete visibility over their diverse and complex operations.
U.S. industry looks to Europe for materials handling and omnichannel innovation; Amsterdam’s Schiphol Airport pilots new remote scanning program; Ocean carriers struggle with schedule reliability; WTO projects an uptick in global trade for 2014; Falling freight rates help Brazilian sugar exporters seize market share.
Managing supply chain partnerships strategically improves their viability and reliability.
A transportation management system with fleet management tools facilitates transportation planning for private fleets.
An automated transportation management system can improve efficiency, reduce costs, and create competitive advantage.
Using a TMS for carrier selection allows shippers to load standard business rules to achieve predicted outcomes.
Companies interested in automating their transportation management processes should examine their current capabilities.
Companies avoid common obstacles to successful TMS implementation by partnering with an experienced solutions provider.
Alaska’s extreme weather and geography create logistics challenges for shippers moving cargo to, from, and in the state.
Faced with long lead times and potential production delays, Badcock Furniture and More invested in a cloud-based tool.
Air cargo shipments of perishable goods such as produce, flowers, and seafood require careful handling.
Expedited shipping modes are a crucial part of shippers’ planned transportation strategies.
Aviation climate emissions agreement signals major progress; Latin American economic growth expected to accelerate despite hinterland connectivity issues; IMO’s container weight verification amendment irks some shipper advocates; Rolls-Royce developing hybrid wind-powered ship; Spain and Portugal seek rail freight harmonies
GPS tracking devices give shippers shipment visibility, even when cargo is in the air.
Leveraging transportation management system (TMS) capabilities help shippers make better real-time carrier decisions.
Shippers’ needs dictate if a third party logistics provider or transportation management system is the best choice.
When choosing an airfreight forwarder, consider transport and tech capabilities, service records, and professionalism.
Sensor-based logistics solutions monitor factors like temperature and humidity to protect perishable shipments.
Mid-market shippers who use Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) transportation management systems (TMS) can improve visibility, access report data, and enable EDI carrier integrations while automating the transportation cycle, says Richard G. Piontek of 3PLogic.
By implementing collaborative and flexible logistics practices and remaining agile, managing air freight today can be a win-win process for both shipper and forwarder, writes Horst von Kanel of Damco USA.
Expedited services transport cargo by air, sea, or ground to meet shippers’ demands for consistent, on-time delivery with short lead times.
A rich and robust transportation management system (TMS) plays an important role in a company’s inbound transportation strategy.
The collaborative environment of a Software-as-a-Servivce (SaaS) transportation management system (TMS) enables connectivity and supports seamless collaboration with global supply chain partners, says Jon Kuerschner of LeanLogistics.
The airfreight industry is depending on the new efficiencies promised by new freighters, e-commerce, and updated air traffic control systems to offset economic uncertainties and increasing regulatory requirements.
With a Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) transportation management system (TMS), shippers are quickly taking control of their network of carriers, customers, and vendors, writes Eric Rempel, 3PLogic.
The logistics sector is using new approaches, mandates, and technologies to support global supply chain security.
C.H. Robinson and Menlo Logistics Worldwide streamline managed TMS services; Ohio, Wisconsin, and California transportation legislation; GE opens renewable energy DC; Order fulfillment process grows in complexity
Transportation and logistics technology solutions such as Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) transportation management systems (TMS) enrich and empower the user community by integrating partners and aggregating data.
CSA 2010 regulations inspire global cosmetics company L’Oreal USA to create a qualification program that holds its fleet of 80 carriers to higher safety standards.
When it comes to transportation management systems, a combination of SaaS plus managed services represents the next step in supply chain optimization, writes Jordan Kass, TMC.
Access to transportation network data allows companies to benchmark with better business intelligence, enabling smarter decisions for continuous improvements, says Matt Ahearn, LeanLogistics.
With the improved visibility supplied by transportation management systems, shippers can leverage shipment data internally to generate top-line revenue, says Geoff Comrie, Transite Technology.
Scott Aubuchon of UPS offers tips to help shippers make the most of their air cargo shipments.
As You Sow asks P&G and General Mills to recycle post-consumer waste; PepsiCo and Coca-Cola make bottles out of plants; Air cargo industry raises concerns about the Transportation Security Administration’s 100-percent screening mandate; Truckers report increasing volumes and rates; TMS market shows signs of rebound; CN invests in new intermodal equipment, new customers; Amazon vacates S.C. DC over sales tax
Third-party logistics (3PL) providers are bringing transportation management systems (TMS) to market.
Today’s new cloud-based transportation management systems empower companies to connect in real-time with their global supply chain partners, helping supply chain managers streamline their processes and save significant time, costs, and resources.
Move out of your comfort zone and into a multi-functional, cost-saving, online transportation management system.
Software-as-a-Service (Saas) transportation management systems encourage collaboration so that all supply chain partners view the same permission-based data to identify mutually beneficial solutions and improvements.
Choose a global air transportation services provider that both you and your customers can trust to deliver time-sensitive inventory on schedule.
U.S. Department of Transportation pursues ban on cell phone use while driving; Proposed air cargo screening legislation enhances security measures; U.S. retailers place increased emphasis on supply chain management
When expediting shipments, visibility, communication, and customer service get into gear.
Selecting a new transportation management solution (TMS), whether fully outsourced, hosted, or internally installed, requires much due diligence to pair functional need with strategic vision.
Moving cargo by air in Alaska requires expertise in transportation and logistics management.
Russia developing a super-heavy cargo plane; Suppliers cannot meet Northern Europe's demand for wind power equipment; United Arab Emirates top re-exporter of rice; Outsourcing grows in Brazil; FedEx Express expands expedited offerings in China; Luxembourg-based 3PL introduces new multimodal hanging garment container to Australian apparel industry.
Geography, transportation infrastructure, and a strong distribution sector make Memphis a natural logistics hub.
U.S. transportation spending lags, according to Transportation Performance Indexes; International air cargo traffic increases; Ocean volumes rise; Large corporations band together to help smaller suppliers sell goods and services to global companies.
Mexico Taxes U.S. Imports, Audi's carbon friendly cars and carbon friendly transportation, Australia labors over transportation expansion, UPS opens health care logistics hubs in Singapore and China, U.S. football imports from China
21st annual State of Logistics Report: Beating the Recession; Making dollars and Sense out of Jabulanis and Vuvuzelas; Mergers and Acquisitions Show signs of Recovery
A professional freight forwarder that represents the interests of all supply chain participants can serve as the missing link in supply chain communication.
Flexible transportation management systems empower shippers by integrating inbound and outbound transportation throughout the supply chain management process.
Transportation managements systems (TMS) have evolved into intelligent execution tools that add context, writes Steven Shoemaker, RateLinx.
Ongoing cooperation with value chain partners is possible with integrated transportation management software for optimal resource utilization, business efficiencies, and cost control, writes Scott Vanselous, TMW Systems Inc.
Tim Higham of Interstate Transport Inc. predicts that within a few years, many service providers will be offering free TMS technology to help their shipper customers move more freight.
Inbound Logistics Senior Writer Joseph O'Reilly tours North Carolina's Piedmont Triad, home to a new FedEx hub and growing Aerotropolis.
The Transportation Security Administration's air cargo screening requirements create challenges for airports and shippers, writes Robert F. Caton of AMB Logistics.
Learn how Alpega's intuitive TenderEasy solution helped CooperVision make their entire freight procurement process more efficient, cutting the time it takes to run their biannual RFQ in half.
Partnering with a 3PL that offers a comprehensive transportation management system can help your enterprise take control of the LTL spend.
Take a look at some of the newest services and solutions in the supply chain industry.
Better matching demand to supply and adjusting contracts, tendering, and invoice auditing strategies can help shippers control transportation costs as rates rise in 2020.
By leveraging Kuebix and an integration with NetSuite, equipment parts importer Summit Supply ensures every order is shipped with the quickest, least expensive option to maximize savings and service.
A lack of oversight can cost a company tens of millions of dollars in unnecessary freight spend. A transportation management system (TMS) with an integrated freight approval tool could stop these kinds of problems before they occur.
For those involved in the management of freight movement, selecting the best Transportation Management System or TMS is a crucial decision. Here are 10 tips on evaluating a TMS for your firm.
Deploying a transportation management system (TMS) can be time-consuming. Here's how to save time and money.
Shippers and intermediaries of all sizes can benefit greatly from the increased functionality and simplified processes offered by a TMS.
Some leading vendors in the TMS market.
How to overcome the challenge of data management—integrating multiple data sources in a transportation management system (TMS)
Virgin Atlantic Cargo and Delta Cargo are poised for takeoff to their new home: the new purpose-built dnata City East, London Heathrow's state-of-the-art cargo facility.
Improved relations between the United States and Cuba have hit an impasse, leading FedEx Corp. to drop a plan to begin cargo flights to the communist country.
Integrated WMS and TMS solutions increase visibility and communication and optimize the movement of goods.
Here’s how a transportation management system will completely transform the efficiency of your supply chain.
At its core, a TMS is charged with moving an order through your system and settling it in the most efficient and cost-effective way. Regardless of your specific needs, today’s challenges require a new approach for evaluating which TMS is best for your organization.
Strengthening economies, increasing globalization, the growth of e-commerce, and software that enables companies to more precisely calculate the trade-offs between air and other transportation modes are driving growth in the airfreight market.
Here are some of the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) that companies can use to improve supply chain visibility, cut transportation costs, and improve parcel shipping service.
The Red Wing Shoe Company gets customers to share how their boots are serving them—and the supply chain—well.
DLS Worldwide President Thomas Griffin reveals the 3PL efficiencies in highest demand as shippers face capacity constraints in 2017.
Transplace helped Huhtamaki reduce costs while improving customer service.
Use these five points to help find a transportation management system
Organizations are turning to third party logistics providers and enhanced transportation management technology to deliver the velocity, visibility, predictability, and control they need.
Asia was the first region to endure COVID-19 and reopen its economies—what does that mean for global supply chains?
Shippers can track inbound shipments until delivered and know if they may be delayed or delivered with damages or shortages by enlisting the assistance of a 3PL.
Security, reliability, and scalability are three barriers that can prevent industrial companies from integrating Industrial Internet of Things (IIOT) solutions.
Now more than ever before, shippers should consider working with an experienced managed transportation service provider that has a large, dedicated network of carrier partners and deep relationships with these partners.
A supply chain built on speed to the Midwest is a market differentiator. By bypassing congested urban terminals and moving logistics closer to the customer base, shippers can take days out of their supply chain and reduce landed costs.
Shippers are turning to managed transportation services (MTS) to help address logistical challenges. Here are the advantages.
2019 marks 30 years of business for 3PL Sunset Transportation. The future is bright as the 3PL starts its 30s with a new facility and innovative new solutions.
By utilizing nVision Global’s Impact TMS, a shipper saved more than €34,000,000 by avoiding expedited freight costs. The company improved transportation planning, optimization capabilities, workflow management, and exception handling.
10 tips for selecting and implementing a SaaS-based TMS solution.
A client looked to PLS Logistics for a way to drive real-time visibility, performance and cost savings to allow each of its 200+ office locations to operate effectively.
With an integrated TMS platform, customers can feel confident that they will get a variety of shipping options and correct pricing based on where they are shipping to.
Shippers can take several steps to rein in airfreight costs. These include checking that it’s truly necessary, combining air with other modes of transportation, incorporating air into their ongoing logistics planning, and developing strong relationships with freight forwarders.
Use this advice to navigate the process of selecting and deploying a TMS solution in a fraction of the time and cost of traditional solutions.
With so many choices available, shippers must truly understand what they want a Transportation Management System to accomplish in order to make the right selection.
2018 looks to be off to a flying start for the air cargo industry, according to World ACD, but it may be too early to celebrate. Worldwide air cargo yield dropped to USD $1.89 (U.S. dollars) in January 2018, 7.8 percent below December, but 16.8 percent higher than January 2017.
Managing transportation has become increasingly challenging as customers grow more demanding and the driver shortage constrains capacity. Consider these three innovations, which can deliver short-term return on investment:
Simply generating supply chain data doesn’t eliminate waste, reduce costs, or improve service. Shippers should implement systems that give managers insights behind the data. Find a TMS that is available as a customized solution to incorporate your unique industry and supply chain requirements.
Capacity is getting tighter across the board. Some carriers may not be willing to commit capacity in lanes they were previously happy to do so. What’s a shipper to do? Should companies use the spot market less?
In order to drive sustainable, impactful change within your organization, it’s important to have the tools and expertise to turn data into actionable business intelligence.
Volatile demand, shrinking lead times, and new consumption patterns have impacted transportation systems in many ways. That makes it ever more important to maintain an agile, flexible supply chain to gain a competitive advantage.
Here are five simple steps shippers can take to reduce the environmental impact of supply chain operations.
The strengthening of air freight demand is consistent with an uptick in world trade and a six-year high in new export orders.
Chemical company BASF Corp. improves real-time visibility of its transportation operations and moves towards predictive supply chain activities with Transplace and Descartes’ MacroPoint solutions.
Celestica improves visibility, controls costs and seeks greater logistics flexibility with MercuryGate’s transportation management system solutions.
U.S.-based low-cost carrier Southwest Airlines flies into the international freight transportation field with the launch of a new Houston-Mexico City route. The carrier plans to add Cancun, Puerto Vallarta and Cabo San Lucas to its network by end of summer 2018.
Retailers and manufacturers are beginning to seek a solution to eliminate supply chain silos and transcend the restrictions of traditional TMS static rules and rates that lead to customer disruptions and cost inefficiencies.
No hype here. These three technological innovations are already enhancing effectiveness, lowering operational costs, and increasing customer satisfaction in supply chain management.
Airline confidence stays high, according to IATA’s latest airline business confidence index.
Supply chain technology ecosystems are evolving as once distinct processes for executing TMS, WMS and YMS functions converge. Is the best path forward stitching together a trifecta of best-of-breed technologies, or going all-in on a single instance, single platform for all three?
Shippers with solid TMS platforms in place can save money not only in terms of freight rates, but also in terms of cost avoidance and labor expenses.
It’s time to make inbound freight a priority and begin reaping the benefits of a program that creates win-win rewards for all supply chain partners.
All fleets will have to adopt electronic logging devices (ELDs) starting Dec. 18, 2017. The result will be a tightening of capacity for shippers. Here’s how to prepare.
Transportation Management Systems’ have the ability to help you be more environmentally responsible. Here are the top five ways a TMS can help your supply chain go green.
By collaborating with a knowledgeable third-party logistics (3PL) provider, shippers can add both scale and visibility to their supply chain.
Visibility is a key issue in the management of supply chains. Introducing transparency throughout all aspects of your business will bring about remarkable results. Here's how.
By offering air, barge, ocean carrier, rail, and trucking services, logistics providers are minimizing the risks involved with transporting goods to, from, and within Alaska.